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Seagull front of the sky took off his hat: a space Odyssey Valentina Tereshkova lifts the veil of secrecy over the life and fate of the world's first female astronaut

What is the fate of those who have changed the destiny of an entire generation? Oddly enough, these stories are usually similar: the anguish, the drama, tragedy and struggle. The first woman went into space, Valentina Tereshkova of the sort happened. At first glance, the Queen of heaven was successful and recognized, loved by people and colleagues. About how it was actually Valentine and her friends began to tell me recently.

At Tereshkova five titles, about fifty awards and medals. It still remains the first and only woman who went to surf the cosmic expanse in isolation. Married the first handsome hero and colleague Andrian Nikolayev. Stayed in a so-called inner circle of the Secretary-General Nikita Khrushchev. Women all over the USSR were asked to repeat its styling, men found it more interesting than the movie stars of that era. "First" — the numeral, almost associated with the activities of Valentina Vladimirovna, which tell you it's been fifty five years since the legendary release Tereshkova into orbit aboard the "Vostok-6". Could the humble weaver from Yaroslavl to imagine what her life might be similar to the plot of a Hollywood blockbuster?

Чайка, перед которой небо сняло шляпу: о космической одиссее Валентины Терешковой

Stamp with the image of Valentina Терешковой

The girl factory

There were a lot of rumors that Tereshkova was selected from a huge number of contenders due to its origin. Family modest village tractor and factory workers, in which Val was the middle child, was early deprived of a breadwinner. Mr terechkov went to the Soviet-Finnish war, killing, and almost until 1954, when the future astronaut was seventeen years old, brother, sister and mother Wali lived from hand to mouth. The girl had to leave school after seven classes, a job at a tire factory. She soon joined his mother, becoming a worker of the textile industry. It would seem, waiting for her life like any: hard work and a "bright future". If not one "but".

The young Wali was a passion that set her apart from the working girls of her age, Tereshkova had dreamed about the fate of the parachutist. In free from work and study in the evening school while the girl visited a circle of Amateur parachuting. In addition, she led the party activity: from a very early age, Valentina was entered in the trade unions and young people — in short, a simple village girl was strong desire and ability to manage people.

When Tereshkova was twenty-five years, the Soviet Union began preparations for the implementation of the grandiose plans for the conquest of space. Sergei Korolev under the supervision of Nikita Khrushchev's ambitious stated intention to send into orbit a woman — then the race for the championship with the United States would have been won entirely. Each of the contenders (and initially there were about a thousand) knew what responsibility she has to bear and what an honor. The name of the one who starts in the "East" will be immortalized, therefore, among the possible participants of the flight prospered competition and other, less pleasant manifestation of the essence of female staff. However, according to the statements of the final five, which included two Valentina Tereshkova and Ponomareva, Irina Solovyova, Tatyana Kuznetsova and Jeanne Yerkin, among them any jealousy and enmity was not. Sergei Korolev, who was personally in charge of the selection and training of women often appealed to them: "Girls, the first will fly into space one of you, obviously. But do not be offended at our choice, because those who will not fly this time, will remain even more interesting and long flights. Let's do this: or we pout at each other because someone will not fly, or are we going to prepare ourselves."

Trials that befell Tereshkova and her friends (they talked all his life), was harsher and tougher than the men astronauts. Demanded by our medical team, who knew that a woman's body endured weightlessness differently than men. Girls trained in the critical temperatures and pressure drops, were placed in a single isolation chamber, testing the psychological resistance, and nowhere Valya did not occupy leading positions. Among the final five of her achievements were the most modest. In addition, Tereshkova was selected the most inexperienced of a toilet-tictoc: Irina Solovieva, for example, was over seven hundred jumps, then, as Valentine managed to make only ninety.

Here also played a role the origin of the Tereshkova. Despite the urging of doctors and coaches, she became the first candidate for the flight. Of great importance to the party and had an active social position of Valentina, who from a young age knew how to speak in public. However, she has appointed two doublers.

Чайка, перед которой небо сняло шляпу: о космической одиссее Валентины Терешковой

According to rumors, the married Andrian Nikolayev and Tereshkova were planned by Nikita Khrushchev. Soon was born the only daughter of astronauts, Elenahot: Vladimir Musaelyan

Take off the hat!

What to do the woman, if very soon, she will go on a long journey? All three girls on the eve of the main day in their life decided to radically change the image and begged arrived in Star city Barber recolor their hair. Rus Tereshkova became a brunette. The headquarters was terrified: photo before start and after landing had to go around the world.

Worried? Afraid? Many years later, she said, a nervous excitement was so strong that it blocked other emotions. But the surrounding, and then all the inhabitants of the earth, I heard from Valentina's just a cheerful phrase like Gagarin "let's Go!" but in his own way: "Hey! The sky! Take off your hat!" — shouted before the launch of "Vostok-6" "the Seagull". This call gave the girl Yuri Gagarin.

"I am very glad that I made a mistake in choosing the first female astronaut" — said immediately after the start of the General Kamynin, who was preparing Tereshkova to fly. Alas, this was only the beginning. The least prepared, Valentine suffered a finding in the orbit with great difficulty. In a heavy spacesuit, it was unbearable to do even simple movements, that are not there or record necessary readings. Overcoming nausea and disorientation, Tereshkova took pictures of the Earth, communicated with his partner on the start of the "Vostok-5" with cosmonaut Valery Bykovsky and... slept. Sleep Seagull was called a flagrant violation of the prescribed regime, but to Wake up Valentina from Earth is not possible — to communicate she did not go out, the signals did not respond. Had her "neighbor" in orbit Bykovsky straight radio to raise long drowsing Tereshkova.

In flight has developed another, far more dangerous than daytime sleep, a situation which became known quite recently. This secret Valentine kept a long time at the request of Sergei Korolev. "Have a cuppa, I beg you, don't talk about it". Thirty years I have kept this secret." Today we know that due to incorrect wiring control her vehicle after arriving at the orbit is not reduced, and was removed from the Earth. General Kamynin understand the possible outcome of this movement is the astronaut could never return. "She twice tried to guide the ship and confessed that... it fails. This fact worries us very much", — reported General. In the end, the Seagull, which was virtually exhausted, were able to lay new data into the onboard computer.

Чайка, перед которой небо сняло шляпу: о космической одиссее Валентины Терешковой

In 2011 Dmitry Medvedev awarded Valentina Tereshkova with the Order of Drugbeat: WWW.KREMLIN.RU

Were required, and these long three days in a stuffy heavy spacesuit, it's time touchdown. A huge parachute was almost unmanageable, and Tereshkova, flying over the lake, feared that will die if you crash — forces to stay afloat she's had. Lucky. The first woman cosmonaut in space, landed in the Altai region, hit the face mask and earning a big black eye. From the suit helped her to get rid of the inhabitants of the nearest village. To celebrate Chaika handed out tubes of space food surrounded by enthusiastic people, and with pleasure ate offered her a treat.

Having learned this, they were indignant. First, the food had been in space, was to explore, second, the very Tereshkova broke the purity of the medical test, eating even a small amount of earthly food. "While I'm alive, no woman in space will not fly!" — cut off Queens. Alas, it happened. None of the famous five, including Tereshkova, came more on Board the "East". The second woman-cosmonaut in flight almost twenty years after the prophetic words of the Queen.

Miss Universe

"I felt fine! I was good," said into the camera happy Tereshkova smiling the whole world. Footage of the moment of landing and these words, spoken joyfully and clearly circled the planet as it did Tereshkova. That shots and record — setting, learned a few years later. They were made the day after the landing, since the first earth day Valentine spent in the hospital: doctors seriously feared for her health.

The flight turned ambitious, but simple girl into a symbol of generation. Alas, after all the tests "copper pipe" broke a Cup of Tea. Colleagues and countrymen Tereshkova saw changed her space — or rather, the glory he brought to Valentine. A star behind the woman did not notice, but everyone who knew her before said, changed its tone of communication, behavior, even gait and facial expressions.

Чайка, перед которой небо сняло шляпу: о космической одиссее Валентины Терешковой

And in 2013, Vladimir Putin presented Valentina Tereshkova with the order of Alexander, Newscolorado: WWW.KREMLIN.RU

Said that her marriage with Andriana Nikola-evye has given rise to feelings, and the calculation of the two kosmonav-tov and Nikita Khrushchev. Bright Duo of heroes-conquerors of the Universe was to serve as a source of inspiration and an example to follow. Indeed, a Valentine to everyone's surprise, including their family, was married to Nikolaev after only half a year after space travel, and soon gave birth to her only child, daughter Elena. Their Union lasted eighteen years, to adulthood daughter. "In the gold house — despot" — briefly spoke about the reasons for the separation of Tereshkova. Then there was the Union with the General physician Yuliy Shaposhnikov. There were rumors that for the sake of Valentina, he threw the same family. This marriage was much more successful, but ended with the illness and death of a spouse in 1999. Today Tereshkova is a senior researcher at the cosmonaut training Center.

Its path is a straight road to the dream. Whatever made the Seagull, marks. Once, seeing the Earth out the window of a spaceship, the girl decided to go to Australia. Recently her wish came true. Now Valentine, who was eighty years old, is planning the second in my life space travel. "Mars is my favorite planet. But we know the human limits... First flight will be a one-way flight. But I'm ready."

day space, Valentina Tereshkova

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