The life story of Hollywood actress still surprises — from the scandalous Nude shots before the patent on the technology, without which it is impossible to imagine the modern world
It would seem that what may surprise a biography of Hollywood actress? Shooting, the successful and the failed film roles, marriages, and divorces earned millions and lots of intrigue... and the diversity of drugs or alcohol. Anything else we get from them do not wait. But Hedy Lamarr was not only able to gain popularity in movies, but to invent things without which it is impossible to imagine a modern mobile device. Many people still don't believe that this incredible beauty had a remarkable mind.
This unique woman was born more than a hundred years ago, and her birthday is now celebrated as inventor's Day. I think it's a coincidence? Not at all: the fact that Hedi is considered the Creator of the method of hopping frequencies required to operate such advanced technologies like GPS, Bluetooth and Wi-FI. Let's see how it happened.
I think that women in those days were considered to be either beautiful or smart. From Hedi were both quality. But started it is still quite traditional.
Hedwig Eva Maria kiesler was born in Vienna in 1914 and was the only child of Gertrude and Emil kiesler. Her father managed a Bank, and his mother, nee Gertrude of Lichtwitz, came from a wealthy Jewish family, was the pianist. Hedy grew up in luxury, and received an excellent education. Since childhood, she studied music and ballet and have a passion for the theater and other arts. Acting the girl studied at drama school, but took place in the movie. For some time the lessons of dramatic art Hedi taught by the famous German Director Max Reinhardt. None of what technical education we don't write for a reason. From hédi do not. Yes, in school, she showed an interest in mathematics, but it fizzled.
The childhood and adolescence of the actress took place in the era of the proliferation of fascist ideology in Europe. However, despite the Jewish origin, Hedy managed to escape the hardships that befell many in those terrible years. His native Vienna, the actress left just shortly before the annexation of Austria to Germany in 1938, after which the Nazis began the persecution of the Jews.
With the controversial "Ecstasy" launched the career of Hedy, Lamarthe: still from the film "Ecstasy"
She started acting very early, and did so with a particular style. As she said Lamarr "Any girl can be glamorous; all you have to do is to stand still and behave stupid."
World popularity it has received thanks to the film "Ecstasy", which is considered the first erotic film in cinema history. The scene where a young girl was bathing Nude in a forest lake, shocked the puritanical audience of the time. The audience resented such emancipation, but they were pouring in droves to the cinema to your eyes to witness this unprecedented spectacle.
Then Lamarr became the first woman to symitiroval orgasm in front of the camera. So it was definitely a breakthrough — however, associated with a huge scandal. For minutes camera closeup shows the face of the actress expresses the increasing pleasure. It is said that to achieve the desired effect in this scene, Hedi pricked myself with a safety pin.
It is the "Ecstasy" opened Hedi the road to Hollywood. However, he drove her in one vivid image, ecstasy girl, wrote about the actress in magazines, from which to the end she was not able to escape, although very wanted.
After the release of the film, the parents urgently gave his daughter marrying one of the richest men in Austria — Fritz, Mandla — industrialist, millionaire and arms dealer. Though he had Jewish roots, but actively collaborated with the fascist regime in Austria and tried to establish close contacts with Germany, that, of course, to sell their weapons during the starting of the war.
Fritz was able to achieve reciprocity from Hedy, although at first the actress was not paying attention to him. But over time were fascinated with the extraordinary intellect and inner power quite jealous, Mandla. Fascinated by so much that agreed to leave the favorite thing altogether ceased to act in film in favor of the spouse. But Fritz was not enough. He even tried to buy all copies of the film "Ecstasy" to the image of his beloved wife not to share with the audience. Of course, this incident only increased the public interest in the painting. Mandl, Hedy was surrounded by servants and luxury, filled her expensive clothes and jewelry, regularly deduced in the light, without losing a single case to show off my beautiful wife. She was present at all receptions and business meetings husband. According to rumors, they were Hitler and Mussolini. Lamarr was also accompanied by Mandela during visits to military laboratories, where we learned a lot about the action of anti-ship weapons and systems of guidance that are very useful to her in the future. Fortunately, like most actors, she was beautiful.
From the life of Hedy in the Salzburg castle surrounded by enormous wealth and numerous servants could seem like a fairy tale. The truth was that it was another purchase, Mandla, like an expensive car or a purebred horse, but our heroine was too smart to accept the role of a beautiful talking doll — she was simply bored.
Besides Hedi hated fascism. After living four years in an unhappy marriage, she decided to flee from her husband. And he did it very exotic, cinematic. Poured a sleeping pill put on her maid, she changed into her clothes and went down the ladder, not forgetting just in case to grab a bag of jewels.
Attending meetings of her husband, Hedi as no one else understand the extent of the fascist threat hanging over Europe. So immediately got on the ship "Normandy" and went to America, where life seemed so much safer.
The actress didn't have to pester in Hollywood: the scandalous film debut was too loud, so it was forgotten for several years. She immediately caught the eye of the great Louis Meyer, the founder of Metro Golden Mayer. He later described his first meeting with Lamarr: "Hedy is the most beautiful woman in the world. God himself introduced me to this delightful brunette. I've been thinking to break the monopoly of the platinum blondes stereotyped in the movies." It was Mayer who recommend Hedy to change the name, so as not to simply shock the audience in the United States of America. As the alias she chose the name Lamarr (in translation it means "sea") in memory of the outstanding actress Barbara La Mar.
Further events unfolded like a movie. A new breathtaking turn in his career and the incredible work thirty million dollars. Fabulous money in those days! In Hollywood, Hedy Lamarr quickly risen in one number with such stars as Marlene Dietrich and Greta Garbo. In the movie, and in life she played the role of a mysterious and fascinating women. Perfect features and extraordinary attraction did hédi one of the brightest movie stars of his time. Only Lamarr starred in more than two dozen Hollywood films: "Risky experiment", "the Strange woman", "Samson and Delilah" and many others. She was among the classic Actresses of the Golden era of American cinema.
"Samson and Delilah" is the best film of actisite: still from the film "Samson and Delilah"
Piano in the dash
Meanwhile, the fire flared up world war: fascism was devouring Europe. Hedi took to heart everything that happened at her home, because she was Jewish. Therefore, when in the framework of measures on strengthening of defense capability of the US created a national inventors Council, she immediately decides to offer their services. She has a million ideas and she hates fascism with all my heart. Technology of error-correcting broadcast seems obvious — you just have all the time to change frequency at random within a wide range, somehow syncing the transmitter and receiver.
The Council's response it is easy to guess. The Hollywood beauty with a smile recommended to use your charm for the sale of defense bonds loan. Obstinate Hedi listened and started a charity auction. It was collected as much as seven million dollars: for a kiss beauties offered to pay twenty-five thousand dollars, and wishing, oddly enough, was enough. But her innovative ideas remained unclaimed until a fateful encounter with composer George Antejjl. In the summer of 1940, Hedy Lamarr met him at a Hollywood party. The conversation quickly shifted to interest them both how to help the country in the war. The composer was the first person carefully Viluchinsk Lamarr. They agreed to meet, and soon the idea of hopping frequencies received technical decision.
Hedi knew how to operate a radio-controlled torpedoes, the biggest drawback of which was imperfect guidance system — to discover the threat, the enemy easily jammed signal, sending interference on the same frequency. Hedi offered to split the signal into several parts and transfer it to different frequencies, which would make the system resistant to interference. Technically this idea is realized Antejjl. To align the transmitter and the signal receiver, it is suggested to use roller or mechanical piano. Microelectronics had not yet been, and the only available programmable device was just an ordinary piano! His engine was compact enough to fit in the hull of the marine torpedoes. The system can use a set of eighty-eight radio frequencies — the number of keys of the instrument. Details of the invention was fulfilled a few months, and in December 1940, the application was sent personally to the Chairman of the National Council of inventors Charles Kettering. She was selected from among hundreds of thousands of other, finalized under the guidance of Kettering, and in August 1942 patent for a "System of secret messages" were finally obtained. The actress and the composer gave his country free.
Alas, the invention of too much ahead of his time. The leadership of the naval forces of the United States are skeptical about the patent. Many officials were not even able to understand the essence of the invention and mockingly exclaimed: "This woman offers to put a piano in a torpedo?" In the end, the patent Lamarr and Antejjl was classified and put under the carpet for many years. The concept of frequency hopping was revived only with the development of electronics after the war. Subsequently, the method of hopping frequencies, first described Lamarr and Antejjl, has been used not only for military but also for peaceful purposes. In the eighties the patent finally declassified the technology was used for many types of wireless transmissions and cell phones worldwide. Thus, the advent of satellite communications, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and GSM we should thank Hollywood actress and composer.
"Alzhir" received four nominations on "Oscar"Photo: still from the film "Alzhir"
Our heroine, meanwhile, continued the life and career of Hollywood zesty. This is truly tragic, but neither a brilliant mind nor the dazzling beauty did not bring her happiness in love. As many as six times Lamarr married six times and divorced rapidly. Some of her marriages lasted only a few months — most men either beat her or cheated on, or pursued at a frantic jealousy. Hedi was categorical, relentlessly witty, and absolutely difficult, therefore, for fifty years, she quarreled with the entire film industry, and because of the habit to publicly Express his unflattering opinion of everyone and everything had made many powerful enemies. It did not take on any role, moreover, made fun of, and she soon left Hollywood and settled in Miami beach in Florida.
The actress has three children, one of whom is the adopted son, but Hedi never had the time, nor special desire to educate them, because the relationship with siblings all my life was quite difficult and strained.
In 1966 pyatidesyatidvuhletny actress tried to return to the screen, but this was prevented by the flattened against her bullying. She was even accused of stealing shoes worth less than one hundred dollars from a store in Florida. Although the court dismissed the charges for lack of evidence, the stain of that stupid incident last. Even more damage to the reputation caused Lamarr's autobiography entitled "Ecstasy and me" co-written. In this work, she allegedly admitted that she suffers from nymphomania. Lamarr sued the publisher claiming that many of the events described in the book, was coined by one of the authors.
For Lamarr and ran a loop of scandalous glory, and offered the role over time has brought less job satisfaction.
In 1998 was followed by another scandal. Symbol Corel decided to do a portrait of beauty. Drawing, they say, was the winner of the contest for the best graphic work, organized by the Corporation. Hedi immediately filed them in court. Corel's lawyers argued that the image of the actress is a digital image, not a photograph. In the result, the parties came to an agreement on which Corel has received a five-year license to use the appearance Lamarr on the boxes with their product, but she is a tidy sum.
But Hedi money quickly spent, with the children finally fell out and in the end died 19 January 2000 at the age of eighty-six years old in a nursing home. Her body was cremated, and son, Anthony Loder scattered the ashes of his mother at her home in Austria in the Vienna woods, in accordance with her wishes. For his contribution to cinema Hedy Lamarr was honored with a star on the Hollywood walk of Fame.
In "the Strange woman" Hedy gave her psychologically complex, roletto: still from the film "the Strange woman"
To pay tribute
Now let us try to realize the astonishing fact that we are not just a beauty, which in his youth was shot Nude. Before us a man whose inventions we use every day. She came up with what now is the basis of GSM, GPS, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. Thanks to her you can not be afraid that someone will get on your Wi-Fi channel. Without the development of Hedy Lamarr, now is not would fly military satellites and would not call cell phones, and navigation systems, and say no. Yes, probably, invented it someone else would have, but the fact remains — did it, Hollywood movie star with the notoriety and quarrelsome nature, and helped her implement the idea not a great inventor, but an ordinary composer.
Only in 1997 she was awarded the Electronic Frontier Foundation. "It's time" — was the reaction of the actress. Lamarr refused to attend the ceremony and did not accept the reporters. "Don't think I look bad, just don't want anyone to see." The award was received by her son, Anthony Loder, the actress have already lost faith in his invention.
Detractors accuse Lamarr in banal theft: allegedly scandalous beauty stole the ideas from her first husband and his staff, because more it or something not worked and has not received any patents. Incidentally, this is not quite true: before starting work on his main brainchild, the girl invented the analogue bouillon cubes with flavor of coke for the manufacture of household soft drinks. On its other findings we probably just do not know.
The invention is an actress and composer, if not immediately, but it was appreciated. In 1997, the electronic frontier Foundation awarded Hedy Lamarr for the creation of technology, and in 2014, her name was included in the national inventors hall of fame USA.
"Hedy, I know, not what you know. You know that Hedy, which invented advertising craftsmen from the movie. They decided that to give it more sex appeal, they will represent her silly. But Hedi is a very, very clever", said Antejjl.
Well, in the end, agreed with him and the rest of the world. Unusual biography and the hype in the Newspapers turned the story of Lamarr in the legend that continues to acquire all new details to this day.